Because Fibonacci numbers are quite abused in programming, a similar concept.

L0 = L1 = 1
Ln = Ln-2 + Ln-1 + 1

My first impulse is to describe them in recursive way:

def leonardo(n):
if n in (0, 1):
return 1
return leonardo(n - 2) + leonardo(n - 1) + 1
for i in range(NUMBER):
print('leonardo[{}] = {}'.format(i, leonardo(i)))

But this is not very efficient to calculate them, as for each is calculating all the previous ones, recursively.

Here memoization works beautifully

cache = {}
def leonardo(n):
if n in (0, 1):
return 1
if n not in cache:
result = leonardo(n - 1) + leonardo(n - 2) + 1
cache[n] = result
return cache[n]
for i in range(NUMBER):
print('leonardo[{}] = {}'.format(i, leonardo(i)))

Taking into account that it uses more memory, and that calculating the Nth element without calculating the previous ones is also costly.

To reduce the problem a little, I decided to start by limiting the number of digits. So, the first approach will be just calculate if a number is narcissistic of not. So, after checking it and making a couple of performance adjustments, the code is as follows…